Early Competition Law in Pakistan
The early competition legislation in Pakistan was the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Ordinance (MRTPO) of 1970 with the Monopoly Control Authority acting under its authority. The scope of the MRTPO was severely constrained by the Economic Reform Order of 1972 which resulted in a broad nationalisation process that affected the major part of the economy. The MRTPO was not applicable to state owned enterprises under §25 and in the fast changing global and national economic environment after the 1980s, the MRTPO was found inadequate to address competition issues effectively because of the incompleteness of the legal framework and the lack of professional expertise in the Monopoly Control Authority (MCA), the agency established for its implementation. Those deficits and Pakistan’s increased exposure to the challenges of global trade made it imperative to update the competition regime.